Uroplectes is a genus of scorpions in the family Buthidae. They are known commonly as the lesser thick-tailed scorpions. There are about 40 species distributed in the Afrotropic ecozone, with them being most diverse in South Africa.

These scorpions are generally about 3 to 6 centimeters long, but a few are smaller, such as U. ansiedippenaarae, which is less than 2 centimeters in length. They are variable in color from bright yellows to muted greens. They occur in many types of habitat from mountain forests to deserts. They live under rocks and in trees, and are sometimes seen invading houses.